# Source code for menpo.transform.base

```
import warnings
import numpy as np
from menpo.base import Copyable, MenpoDeprecationWarning
[docs]class Transform(Copyable):
r"""
Abstract representation of any spatial transform.
Provides a unified interface to apply the transform with
:meth:`apply_inplace` and :meth:`apply`.
All Transforms support basic composition to form a :map:`TransformChain`.
There are two useful forms of composition. Firstly, the mathematical
composition symbol `o` has the following definition::
Let a(x) and b(x) be two transforms on x.
(a o b)(x) == a(b(x))
This functionality is provided by the :meth:`compose_after` family of
methods: ::
(a.compose_after(b)).apply(x) == a.apply(b.apply(x))
Equally useful is an inversion the order of composition - so that over
time a large chain of transforms can be built to do a useful job, and
composing on this chain adds another transform to the end (after all other
preceding transforms have been performed).
For instance, let's say we want to rescale a :map:`PointCloud` ``p`` around
its mean, and then translate it some place else. It would be nice to be able
to do something like::
t = Translation(-p.centre) # translate to centre
s = Scale(2.0) # rescale
move = Translate([10, 0 ,0]) # budge along the x axis
t.compose(s).compose(-t).compose(move)
In Menpo, this functionality is provided by the :meth:`compose_before()`
family of methods::
(a.compose_before(b)).apply(x) == b.apply(a.apply(x))
For native composition, see the :map:`ComposableTransform` subclass and
the :map:`VComposable` mix-in.
For inversion, see the :map:`Invertible` and :map:`VInvertible` mix-ins.
For alignment, see the :map:`Alignment` mix-in.
"""
@property
def n_dims(self):
r"""
The dimensionality of the data the transform operates on.
``None`` if the transform is not dimension specific.
:type: `int` or ``None``
"""
return None
@property
def n_dims_output(self):
r"""
The output of the data from the transform.
``None`` if the output of the transform is not dimension specific.
:type: `int` or ``None``
"""
# most Transforms don't change the dimensionality of their input.
return self.n_dims
def _apply(self, x, **kwargs):
r"""
Applies the transform to the array ``x``, returning the result.
This method does the actual work of transforming the data, and is the
one that subclasses must implement. :meth:`apply` and
:meth:`apply_inplace` both call this method to do that actual work.
Parameters
----------
x : ``(n_points, n_dims)`` `ndarray`
The array to be transformed.
kwargs : `dict`
Subclasses may need these in their ``_apply`` methods.
Returns
-------
transformed : ``(n_points, n_dims_output)`` `ndarray`
The transformed array
"""
raise NotImplementedError()
[docs] def apply_inplace(self, *args, **kwargs):
r"""
Deprecated as public supported API, use the non-mutating `apply()`
instead.
For internal performance-specific uses, see `_apply_inplace()`.
"""
warnings.warn(
"the public API for inplace operations is deprecated "
"and will be removed in a future version of Menpo. "
"Use .apply() instead.",
MenpoDeprecationWarning,
)
return self._apply_inplace(*args, **kwargs)
def _apply_inplace(self, x, **kwargs):
r"""
Applies this transform to a :map:`Transformable` ``x`` destructively.
Any ``kwargs`` will be passed to the specific transform :meth:`_apply`
method.
Note that this is an inplace operation that should be used sparingly,
by internal API's where creating a copy of the transformed object is
expensive. It does not return anything, as the operation is inplace.
Parameters
----------
x : :map:`Transformable`
The :map:`Transformable` object to be transformed.
kwargs : `dict`
Passed through to :meth:`_apply`.
"""
def transform(x_):
"""
Local closure which calls the :meth:`_apply` method with the
`kwargs` attached.
"""
return self._apply(x_, **kwargs)
try:
x._transform_inplace(transform)
except AttributeError:
raise ValueError(
"apply_inplace can only be used on Transformable" " objects."
)
[docs] def apply(self, x, batch_size=None, **kwargs):
r"""
Applies this transform to ``x``.
If ``x`` is :map:`Transformable`, ``x`` will be handed this transform
object to transform itself non-destructively (a transformed copy of the
object will be returned).
If not, ``x`` is assumed to be an `ndarray`. The transformation will be
non-destructive, returning the transformed version.
Any ``kwargs`` will be passed to the specific transform :meth:`_apply`
method.
Parameters
----------
x : :map:`Transformable` or ``(n_points, n_dims)`` `ndarray`
The array or object to be transformed.
batch_size : `int`, optional
If not ``None``, this determines how many items from the numpy
array will be passed through the transform at a time. This is
useful for operations that require large intermediate matrices
to be computed.
kwargs : `dict`
Passed through to :meth:`_apply`.
Returns
-------
transformed : ``type(x)``
The transformed object or array
"""
def transform(x_):
"""
Local closure which calls the :meth:`_apply` method with the
`kwargs` attached.
"""
return self._apply_batched(x_, batch_size, **kwargs)
try:
return x._transform(transform)
except AttributeError:
return self._apply_batched(x, batch_size, **kwargs)
def _apply_batched(self, x, batch_size, **kwargs):
if batch_size is None:
return self._apply(x, **kwargs)
else:
outputs = []
n_points = x.shape[0]
for lo_ind in range(0, n_points, batch_size):
hi_ind = lo_ind + batch_size
outputs.append(self._apply(x[lo_ind:hi_ind], **kwargs))
return np.vstack(outputs)
[docs] def compose_before(self, transform):
r"""
Returns a :map:`TransformChain` that represents **this** transform
composed **before** the given transform::
c = a.compose_before(b)
c.apply(p) == b.apply(a.apply(p))
``a`` and ``b`` are left unchanged.
Parameters
----------
transform : :map:`Transform`
Transform to be applied **after** self
Returns
-------
transform : :map:`TransformChain`
The resulting transform chain.
"""
return TransformChain([self, transform])
[docs] def compose_after(self, transform):
r"""
Returns a :map:`TransformChain` that represents **this** transform
composed **after** the given transform::
c = a.compose_after(b)
c.apply(p) == a.apply(b.apply(p))
``a`` and ``b`` are left unchanged.
This corresponds to the usual mathematical formalism for the compose
operator, `o`.
Parameters
----------
transform : :map:`Transform`
Transform to be applied **before** self
Returns
-------
transform : :map:`TransformChain`
The resulting transform chain.
"""
return TransformChain([transform, self])
[docs]class Transformable(Copyable):
r"""
Interface for objects that know how to be transformed by the
:map:`Transform` interface.
When ``Transform.apply_inplace`` is called on an object, the
:meth:`_transform_inplace` method is called, passing in the transforms'
:meth:`_apply` function.
This allows for the object to define how it should transform itself.
"""
[docs] def _transform_inplace(self, transform):
r"""
Apply the given transform function to ``self`` inplace.
Parameters
----------
transform : `function`
Function that applies a transformation to the transformable object.
Returns
-------
transformed : ``type(self)``
The transformed object, having been transformed in place.
"""
raise NotImplementedError()
def _transform(self, transform):
r"""
Apply the :map:`Transform` given in a non destructive manner -
returning the transformed object and leaving this object as it was.
Parameters
----------
transform : `function`
Function that applies a transformation to the transformable object.
Returns
-------
transformed : ``type(self)``
A copy of the object, transformed.
"""
copy_of_self = self.copy()
# transform the copy destructively
copy_of_self._transform_inplace(transform)
return copy_of_self
from .alignment import Alignment
from .composable import TransformChain, ComposableTransform, VComposable
from .invertible import Invertible, VInvertible
```